Aims/Introduction: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased hip fracture risk. We investigated the relationship between hip fracture and all-cause death in patients with type 2 diabetes in comparison with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or end-stage renal disease (ERSD). Materials and Methods: In total, 4,923 Japanese participants with type 2 diabetes (mean age 65 years, 2,790 men, 2,133 women) were followed for a median of 5.3 years (follow-up rate 99.5%). We evaluated the associations between the presence of hip fracture (n = 110), upper limb fracture (n = 801), CVD (n = 1,344), ESRD (n = 104) and all-cause death by logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 309 participants died during follow up. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for all-cause mortality were significantly higher in participants with hip fractures than those without hip fractures (OR 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.54–4.41), whereas the ORs for upper limb fracture were not significant. The ORs for all-cause mortality were significantly higher in participants with CVD than those without CVD (OR 1.78, 95% CI, 1.39–2.70) and ESRD (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.32–4.05). The ORs for all-cause mortality of hip fracture were not affected by further adjustment for CVD and ESRD (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.58–4.54). The cause of death was infection (40.0%), malignant neoplasm (25.0%) and CVD (15.0%) among participants with hip fracture. Conclusions: Hip fractures were associated with an increased risk of death among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, independently of CVD and ESRD.
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