In unrelated hematopoietic SCT (HSCT), HLA allele mismatch has been shown to have a significant role. To clarify the importance of HLA allele mismatch in the GVH direction in related HSCT, we retrospectively evaluated 2377 patients who received stem cells from an HLA serologically matched related donor in the GVH direction using the database of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD in patients with an HLA allele-mismatched donor (n=133, 5.6%) were significantly higher than those in patients with an HLA allele-matched donor. Multivariate analyses showed that the presence of HLA allele mismatch was associated with increased risks of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD. In particular, HLA-B mismatch and multiple allele mismatches were associated with an increased risk of acute GVHD. The presence of HLA allele mismatch was associated with an inferior OS owing to an increased risk of non-relapse mortality (NRM). In conclusion, the presence of HLA allele mismatch in the GVH direction in related HSCT was associated with increased risks of GVHD and NRM, which led to an inferior OS. HLA allele typing is recommended in related HSCT.
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