Objective To examine the impact of income and eating speed on new-onset diabetes among men. Design This was a retrospective cohort study. Setting We used the administrative claims and health check-up data for fiscal years 2010-2015 obtained from the Fukuoka branch of the Japan Health Insurance Association. Participants Participants were 15 474 non-diabetic male employees, aged between 40 and 74 years. They were categorised based on their eating speeds (ie, fast, normal and non-fast). Primary and secondary outcome measures To calculate the OR of the development of diabetes, we created generalised linear regression models with diabetes onset as the dependent variable and eating speed and income as covariates and calculated corresponding 95% CI values. The analyses were performed after adjusting the data for age, obesity and comorbidities. Results Of the total participants, 620 developed diabetes during the 5-year study period. A univariate analysis using the generalised linear regression model revealed that eating fast (OR: 1.35, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.55) and having a low income wereincome (OR: 1.47, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.74) were significantly associated with the onset of diabetes. After adjusting for age, obesity and comorbidities, both eating fast (OR: 1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.35) and having a low income (OR: 1.24, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.50) were recognised as independent risk factors for diabetes onset. Conclusions The study revealed that eating fast and having a low income were independent risk factors, leading to the development of diabetes. While it is difficult to address income differences, it may be possible to address the factors that contribute to income differences to manage diabetes appropriately and at low healthcare costs. However, eating speed can be controlled. Hence, the provision of education and coaching on dietary habits, including eating speed, may be effective in preventing diabetes onset.
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