Optimal time to perform percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty (PMV) for patients with significant mitral stenosis (MS) and atrial fibrillation (AF) remains controversial. We sought to identify prognostic factors and evaluate long-term clinical outcomes after PMV of 77 consecutive patients with MS with a mitral valve area (MVA) <1.5 cm2. According to baseline heart rhythm, these patients were divided into sinus rhythm (SR; n = 24) and AF (n = 53) groups. The study endpoint was defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, admission for heart failure, mitral valve surgery, repeated PMV, and major cerebral vascular accident during follow-up. After successful PMV, there was no significant difference between the two groups in post-MVA and post-mitral mean pressure gradient. However, the New York Heart Association Functional Classification post-procedure was worse in the AF group (p < 0.01). In the AF group, event-free survival during follow-up was significantly lower compared with that of the SR group (p = 0.016). Independent predictors of clinical events were AF [hazard ratio (HR), 2.73; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.04–9.36; p = 0.03] and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (HR 2.57; 95 % CI 1.18–5.47; p = 0.017). Patients with AF at baseline were significantly associated with worse symptoms and higher event rates after successful PMV compared with those with SR. The clinical benefit of PMV may be considered for patients with MVA <1.5 cm2 before the onset of AF.
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