The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface modification of calcium ions on roughened titanium as a surface treatment of dental implants for cell attachment, growth, and initial bacterial adhesion. When a surface-roughened, pure titanium disk was immersed in a calcium chloride solution 100 mM containing 20 ppm ozone for 24 h at 25ºC, calcium was detected on the surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The calcium-modified, roughened titanium disk had a significantly greater concentration of the initially adhered cells as well as cells cultured over 7 days compared with titanium disks without surface modification. Furthermore, the initial bacterial adhesion on the calcium–ozone treated titanium disk was statistically less than on a pure titanium disk or titanium disk treated without ozone. Dissolved ozone was useful for modifying the surface of roughened titanium with calcium ions and the surface modification may be applicable for dental implants.
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