Aims: Repeated use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can induce changes in the redox status, including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the specific details of these changes remain unknown. Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) has been used in vivo to monitor the redox status in several diseases and map tissue oxygen concentrations. We monitored the intra-and extracellular redox status in the stomach of rats with indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers using OMRI and investigated the relationship with gastric mucosal damage. Results: One hour after oral administration of indomethacin (30 mg/kg), OMRI measurements in the stomach were made following nitroxyl probe administration. OMRI with the membrane-permeable nitroxyl probe, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), demonstrated a redox change toward oxidation, which was reversed by a membrane-permeable antioxidant. Conversely, imaging with the impermeable probe, 4-Trimethylammonium-2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (CAT-1), demonstrated little redox change. Redox imbalance imaging of a live rat stomach with indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers was produced by dual imaging of 15 N-labeled TEMPOL and 14 N-labeled CAT-1, in addition to imaging with another membrane-permeable 15 N-labeled probe, 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-Tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL), and 14 N-labeled CAT-1. Pretreatment with MC-PROXYL suppressed gastric mucosal damage, whereas pretreatment with CAT-1 did not suppress ulcer formation. Innovation: OMRI combined with a dual probe is a less invasive imaging technique for evaluation of intracellular ROS production contributing to the formation of gastric ulcers in the stomach of indomethacin-Treated rats, which cannot be done with other methods. Conclusion: This method may be a very powerful tool for characterizing the pathogenesis of various diseases and may have medical applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology