In vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with nitroxyl spin probes has been used for the evaluation of in vivo free radical reactions and redox status in living animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the location of free radical reactions induced by hyperglycemia in osteogenic disorder shionogi (ODS) rats using in vivo EPR spectroscopy. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The amount of ascorbic acid (AsA) in ODS rats was controlled by feeding AsA-containing water. Fourteen days after STZ injection, blood glucose and plasma malondialdehyde levels in STZ-treated rats significantly increased compared with untreated rats. Signal decay rates of intravenously injected 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (carbamoyl-PROXYL) (less membrane permeable) and 3-carboxy-PROXYL (membrane impermeable) were enhanced in STZ-treated rats in agreement with the previous reports. The decay rate of 3-acetoxymethoxy-PROXYL (membrane permeable) was significantly enhanced by STZ treatment in AsA-depleted rats, and this enhancement was partially restored to the control value by xanthine oxidase inhibitor, although the rate in AsA-supplemented rats was not changed by STZ treatment. These results suggested that the enhancement of signal decay occurred mainly in the intravascular region in STZ-induced diabetic rats and that AsA depletion induced the enhancement of intracellular signal decay through xanthine oxidase, although it is not clear whether the enhancement of signal decay is the cause or the effect of STZ-induced diabetes.
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