Background: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence and predictors of ischemic stroke or recurrent transient ischemic attack (TIA) during acute hospitalization in patients with TIA. Methods: We carried out a multicenter retrospective study to clarify the characteristics of in-patients with TIA. The subjects of this study were TIA patients admitted to 13 stroke hospitals within 7 days after onset between 2008 and 2009. TIA was defined as focal neurologic symptoms ascribable to a vascular etiology lasting less than 24 h. We investigated the incidence and predictors of ischemic events including ischemic stroke or recurrent TIA during hospitalization. Results: A total of 464 patients with TIA (292 men, 69 ± 13 years) were registered. Of those, 400 (86.2%) were admitted within 24 h of TIA onset. The mean length of hospital stay was 13 days. During hospitalization, 8 patients had ischemic strokes and 26 had recurrent TIAs. The leading subtype of 8 ischemic strokes was small vessel disease (n = 3) followed by cardioembolism (n = 2). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that hypertension (OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.23-12.3), MRI-diffusion-weighted image positivity (OR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.15-5.25), and hemiparesis (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.02-5.88) were independently associated with ischemic events during hospitalization. Conclusions: In this study, 1.7% of patients with TIA had ischemic stroke during acute hospitalization, and the most common subtype was small vessel disease. Subsequent ischemic stroke and recurrent TIA were associated with hypertension, positive DWI findings, and hemiparesis.
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