A 9-year-old Japanese girl received a cadaveric dura mater graft during surgery following a head injury with brain contusion. She continued to do well, but when she became 19-years-old, she gradually showed a violent character and was treated in a psychiatric hospital. Another 6 years later, 200 months after the procedure, she developed a progressive gait ataxia, which subsequently led to her death within 10 months of onset. An autopsy showed she had CJD. This patient represents an atypical case of dura-associated CJD (dCJD) with unusual clinicopathological features including the late occurrence of myoclonus, an absence of periodic synchronous discharges in the electroencephalogram, and the presence of widespread florid plaques. However, our detection of an asymmetrical increase in the MRI-derived images of pulvinar nuclei has not been previously observed in other atypical cases of dCJD. Because atypical dCJD cases share several clinicopathological features with those of vCJD, and because asymmetrical hyperintense signals in the pulvinar have been observed in some neuropathologically confirmed vCJD cases, we had some difficulty in a differential diagnosis between atypical dCJD and vCJD. This is the first atypical dCJD case showing a pulvinar high signal compared with all other basal ganglia on MRI.
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