Although hypercalcemia is a risk factor for all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients, it remains unknown whether hypercalcemia increases the risk of infection-related death. A total of 2869 hemodialysis patients registered in the Q-Cohort Study, a multicenter, prospective cohort study of hemodialysis patients, were analyzed. The predictor was albumin-corrected serum calcium level at baseline. The main outcome was infection-related death. Death risk were estimated by multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard risk models and competing risk models. During the follow-up period of 4 years, 107 patients died of infection and 473 died of any cause. The patients were divided into four groups by the serum calcium level at baseline (G1, 5.7–8.9 mg/dL; G2, 9.0–9.4 mg/dL; G3, 9.5–9.9 mg/L; G4 10.0–16.5 mg/dL). In the multivariable-adjusted model, the incidence of infection-related death was significantly higher in the highest serum calcium group (G4) compared with the lowest serum calcium group (G1): hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.34 [1.35–4.04], P = 0.002. Furthermore, higher serum calcium level was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause death. In conclusion, our data suggest that a higher serum calcium level may be a risk factor for infection-related and all-cause death in hemodialysis patients.
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