Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment

Hisashi Ohtsuki, Yoh Iwasa, Martin A. Nowak

研究成果: ジャーナルへの寄稿学術誌査読

238 被引用数 (Scopus)

抄録

Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Our behaviour towards other people depends not only on what they have done to us but also on what they have done to others. Indirect reciprocity works through reputation. The standard model of indirect reciprocity offers a binary choice: people can either cooperate or defect. Cooperation implies a cost for the donor and a benefit for the recipient. Defection has no cost and yields no benefit. Currently there is considerable interest in studying the effect of costly (or altruistic) punishment on human behaviour. Punishment implies a cost for the punished person. Costly punishment means that the punisher also pays a cost. It has been suggested that costly punishment between individuals can promote cooperation. Here we study the role of costly punishment in an explicit model of indirect reciprocity. We analyse all social norms, which depend on the action of the donor and the reputation of the recipient. We allow errors in assigning reputation and study gossip as a mechanism for establishing coherence. We characterize all strategies that allow the evolutionary stability of cooperation. Some of those strategies use costly punishment; others do not. We find that punishment strategies typically reduce the average payoff of the population. Consequently, there is only a small parameter region where costly punishment leads to an efficient equilibrium. In most cases the population does better by not using costly punishment. The efficient strategy for indirect reciprocity is to withhold help for defectors rather than punishing them.

本文言語英語
ページ(範囲)79-82
ページ数4
ジャーナルNature
457
7225
DOI
出版ステータス出版済み - 1月 1 2009

!!!All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • 医学(全般)
  • 一般

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