Background. Combination chemotherapy using an oral combination of uracil and tegafur (UFT) plus cisplatin and concurrent thoracic radiotherapy is reported to have a high response rate and less toxicity for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We performed a phase II trial using this chemoradiotherapy as an induction treatment. Methods. Patients with marginally resectable stage IIIB NSCLC, an age younger than 70 years, a performance status of 0 or 1, and good organ function were eligible. The UFT (400 mg/m2) was administered orally on days 1 through 14 and 22 through 35 and cisplatin (80 mg/m2) was injected intravenously on days 8 and 29. Radiotherapy with a total dose of 40 Gy was delivered in 20 fractions from day 1. A surgical resection was performed from 3 to 6 weeks after completing the induction treatment. Results. Twenty-seven patients, 18 male and 9 female with a median age of 56 years and ranging from 36 to 69 years, were entered into the phase II trial. Clinical T4 and N3 cancers were observed in 22 and 7 patients, respectively. Twenty-five (93%) achieved a partial response. The most frequently observed adverse event was grade 3 leukopenia in 26%. Of 25 patients who underwent a thoracotomy, 22 had a tumor resection. In all 22 patients a complex resection including a resection of the superior vena cava, carina, and vertebrae was required. Operative morbidity and mortality rates were 36% and 4% respectively. The calculated 1-year and 3-year survival rates of all 27 patients were 73% and 56% respectively. Conclusions. Chemotherapy using UFT plus cisplatin and concurrent radiotherapy as induction treatment and a surgical resection for patients with marginally resectable stage IIIB NSCLC is feasible and promising. However it is difficult to conduct multi-institutional trials even for selected stage IIIB disease as a complex resection in almost all patients is necessary.
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