A 13-year-old boy was admitted to a local hospital because of pancytopenia. A bone marrow aspiration and biopsy revealed severely hypocellular marrow with no obvious leukemic cells. The diagnosis was severe aplastic anemia, and the patient was treated with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A. A trilineage response was obtained, and the patient became transfusion-independent within 2 weeks. Two months later, the peripheral blood count normalized with an increased bone marrow cellularity. However, the patient was readmitted 5 months later for recurrence of the pancytopenia. A bone marrow aspiration revealed hypocellular marrow with morphologically blastoid cells. A surface marker study revealed the presence of a single clone that was positive for CD7, CD33, CD34, and HLA-DR. A diagnosis of hypoplastic leukemia was made on the basis of morphology and the surface marker studies. Retrospectively, the laboratory findings were the same as those seen at the onset of the disease. The patient did not respond to combination chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, prednisolone, cyclophosphamide, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin, but administration of etoposide resulted in complete remission. An in vitro study revealed that >95% of the leukemic cells of this patient could be lysed after an incubation with antithymocyte globulin and human AB serum or baby rabbit serum. These findings suggest the efficacy of antithymocyte globulin in treating certain hypoplastic leukemias.
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