To assess infectious complications associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with reduced- and conventional-intensity conditioning regimens (RIC, n=91; CIC, n=54, respectively), we retrospectively analyzed data from 145 consecutive patients with cGVHD after allogeneic HSCT from a human leukocyte antigen-matched related or unrelated donor. In the present retrospective analysis, 57% (83/145) of patients with cGVHD developed infections, with a mortality rate of 27% (22/83). The incidences of bacteremia (n=28), central venous catheter-related infections (n=11), bacterial pneumonia (n=4), invasive aspergillosis (n=7), and adenoviral hemorrhagic cystitis (n=8) were significantly higher in patients with prednisolone dose ≥1 mg/kg at the time of diagnosis of cGVHD. The present results suggest that infections associated with cGVHD, especially after high-dose prednisolone, are predictive of poor outcome regardless of whether the patient received RIC or CIC.
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