The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal physical activity (PA) before and during pregnancy and sleep and developmental problems in 1-year-old infants. We used data from a nationwide cohort study in Japan that registered 103,062 pregnancies between 2011 and 2014. Participants were asked about their PA before and during pregnancy, and the sleep and development of their children at the age of 1 year. Maternal PA was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and was expressed in METs per week. We defined scores below the cut-off points of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) as abnormal for infant development. Based on the levels of PA before or during pregnancy, the participants were divided into five groups. In mothers with higher PA levels, the risk ratio for bedtime after 22:00 or abnormal ASQ scores in their 1-years-old infants were lower. These associations were observed for PA before and during pregnancy. Higher levels of maternal PA, both before and during pregnancy, may reduce sleep and developmental problems in infants.
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