The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an injectable composite made up of calcium sulfate (CAS), fluvastatin (FS), and atelocollagen on bone augmentation in rats. Porous structures and compressive strength of composites were evaluated. The cumulative release kinetics of FS were determined in vitro by a spectrophotometer. To observe bone regeneration in vivo, five different materials (normal saline; atelocollagen gel only; composite of CAS and atelocollagen; composite containing 0.5% FS; and composite containing 1.0% FS) were injected in extraction sockets and in the crania of rats. Microcomputed tomography and histological evaluation were performed after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of healing time. The composites had high porosity (greater than 55%). FS kept a slow and stable release for >30 days. In vivo results demonstrated that more new bone was formed in the FS groups compared with the other groups, and both bone mass and bone density had prominent increase in maxillae and crania. Resorption of the composite was also observed for cranial tissues. In conclusion, this composite can be applied percutaneously, without any incision. It has excellent properties with replaceability into bone and anabolic effects for bone formation, as well as a drug delivery system for bone formation.
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