We formulate a manifestly supersymmetric gauge covariant regularization of supersymmetric chiral gauge theories. In our scheme, the effective action in the superfield background field method above one-loop is always supersymmetric and gauge invariant. The gauge anomaly has a covariant form and can emerge only in one-loop diagrams with all the external lines being the background gauge superfield. We also present several illustrative applications in the one-loop approximation: the self-energy part of the chiral multiplet and of the gauge multiplet; the super-chiral anomaly and the superconformal anomaly; as the corresponding anomalous commutators, the Konishi anomaly and an anomalous supersymmetric transformation law of the supercurrent (the "central extension" of N = 1 supersymmetry algebra) and of the R-current.
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