The EXPAND Study demonstrated the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in routine clinical practice in Japan. This sub-analysis was conducted to reveal the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban in Japanese NVAF patients according to baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl) levels and rivaroxaban doses in the EXPAND Study. We examined 6806 patients whose baseline CrCl data were available and classified them into 2 groups: normal renal function group with CrCl ≥ 50 mL/min (n = 5326, 78%) and renal dysfunction group with CrCl < 50 mL/min (n = 1480, 22%). In the normal renal function group, 1609 (30%) received 10 mg/day (under-dose), while in the renal dysfunction group, 108 (7%) received 15 mg/day (over-dose). In the normal renal function group, under-dose of rivaroxaban was associated with higher all-cause mortality, while in the renal dysfunction group, over-dose was associated with higher incidence of major bleeding. In contrast, the incidence of stroke or systemic embolism was not different between the 2 groups regardless of the dose of rivaroxaban. In the propensity score matched analysis to adjust the difference in characteristics according to doses of rivaroxaban, the incidences of clinical outcomes were comparable between the 2 dose groups in both renal function groups. These results indicate that the dose of rivaroxaban should be reduced depending on the renal function, considering the balance between risks of bleeding and ischemia.
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