Today Japan is far ahead of the rest of the world on the aging curve of the population and faces unprecedented pressure to delay workers’ retirement. In this national context, workers’ retirement decisions and behaviors are largely determined, at the macro- and mesolevels, by the interplay between the government and employers over reforming mandatory retirement corporate policies thoroughly and uniformly institutionalized across the country’s workplaces, which are set at ages much younger than in most other developed countries around the world. The primary microlevel determinants of retirement include the persistent gender roles, which have still affected many female workers, those currently aged 50 and older in particular, as they are often rendered as primary caregiver for children, aged parents, and the household.
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