Chronic pain is a common problem in pediatric practice. The prevalence of chronic pain in children is >30%. Because pain indicates emotional expression as well as the physiological reaction toward infection, injury, and inflammation, both physiological and psychological assessments are essential to determine primary interventions for chronic pain. The Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents compiled clinical evidence and opinions of specialists associated with the primary care of pediatric chronic pain in the Japanese 'clinical guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents' in 2009, which are presented herein. The guidelines consist of three domains: general introduction to chronic pain; chronic abdominal pain; and chronic headache. Each section contains information on the physiological mechanism, psychological aspects, assessment methods, and primary interventions for pediatric chronic pain. These guidelines are expected to help disseminate knowledge on primary interventions for chronic pain in children and adolescents.
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