Purpose: The Clinical Practice Guidelines for Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head (ONFH) 2019 Edition, written by the working group for ONFH guidelines of the Japanese Investigation Committee (JIC) for ONFH under the auspices of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare and endorsed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association, were published in Japanese in October 2019. The objective of this guideline is to provide a support tool for decision-making between doctors and patients. Methods: Procedures for developing this guideline were based on the Medical Information Network Distribution Service Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014, which proposed an appropriate method for preparing clinical guidelines in Japan. Results: This clinical practice guideline consists of 7 chapters: epidemiology; pathology; diagnosis; conservative therapy; surgical treatment: bone transplantation/cell therapy; surgical treatment: osteotomy; and surgical treatment: hip replacement. Twelve background questions and 13 clinical questions were determined to define the basic features of the disease and to be addressed when deciding treatment in daily practice, respectively. Conclusions: The clinical practice guidelines for the ONFH 2019 edition will be useful for physicians, investigators, and medical staff in clinical practice, as well as for patients, during the decision-making process when defining how to treat ONFH.
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