The causal effects of vaccines on Kawasaki disease (KD) remain elusive. We aimed to examine the association between vaccines administered during infancy and the development of KD in Japan. We conducted a multicenter prospective case-control study using questionnaires and compared the vaccination status of infants (age: 6 weeks to 9 months) who developed KD (KD group; n = 102) and those who did not develop KD (non-KD group; n = 139). Next, we performed a case-crossover study of 98 cases in the KD group and compared the status of vaccinations between the case and control periods. We also compared the incidence of KD in children for each 5-year period before and after the addition of new vaccines (2012–2013) using data from the Nationwide Survey of KD. In the case-control study, the vaccination status of the KD and control groups did not differ to a statistically significant extent. Multivariable analysis of the vaccination status and patient back-grounds showed no significant association between vaccination and KD development. In the case-crossover study, the status of vaccinations during the case and control periods did not differ to a statistically significant extent. In the analysis of data from the Nationwide Survey of KD, the incidence of KD in children of ages subject to frequent vaccination showed no significant increases in the latter five years, 2014–2018. Based on these prospective analyses, we confirmed that vaccination in early infancy did not affect the risk of KD.
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