Objective: To investigate whether the development of postnatal, late-onset refractory hypotension, referred to as late-onset circulatory collapse, was associated with an increased risk of developing cerebral palsy (CP) at 3 years of age in extremely preterm infants. Methods: In this historical cohort study, infants who were born at 22-27 weeks of gestation from 2008 to 2012 in the Neonatal Research Network of Japan were eligible. The study sample consisted of 3474 infants (45.6% of 7613 potentially eligible infants) who were evaluated at 36-42 months of age. Late-onset circulatory collapse was defined as a clinical diagnosis of late-onset circulatory collapse requiring treatment with corticosteroids. We compared the neurodevelopmental outcomes between infants with and without late-onset circulatory collapse. Results: Late-onset circulatory collapse was diagnosed in 666 of the infants studied. Infants with late-onset circulatory collapse had a higher incidence of CP than those without late-onset circulatory collapse (18.0% vs 9.8%; P < .01). In multivariable logistic analysis, late-onset circulatory collapse was independently associated with CP (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.13-2.04) and developmental quotient score of <50 (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.23-2.72). Conclusions: Late-onset circulatory collapse may be a relatively common event occurring in extremely preterm infants and an independent risk factor for CP at 3 years of age.
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