Background: Little is known about late-onset primary malignant neoplasms after repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) despite malignancy being one of the primary causes of late death. We investigated the incidence and prognostic factors related to the occurrence of malignancy after AAA repair. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 589 patients who underwent AAA repair, including 264 endovascular AAA repairs and 325 open surgical repairs; 482 patients had no history of previous malignancy or concomitant malignancy, 72 had previous malignancy, and 35 had concomitant malignancy in remission at the time of AAA repair. The cumulative incidence rates of late-onset malignancy occurrence and cancer death were estimated using the cumulative incidence function in the presence of competing risks, that is, noncancer death, and prognostic factors were investigated using the Fine-Gray hazard model. Results: After hospital discharge, 128 malignancies occurred in 116 patients. Overall cumulative incidence rates of late-onset malignancy occurrence at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years were 4.0%, 11.7%, 18.2%, and 38.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that significant prognostic factors for late-onset malignancy included history of previous malignancy, current smoker, higher intraoperative blood loss, absence of allogeneic blood transfusion, lower C-reactive protein levels, and lower serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. The type of surgical procedures for AAA repair did not affect the occurrence of malignancy. In addition, current smoker and higher intraoperative blood loss significantly increased the risk of cancer death. Conclusions: Current smoker and higher intraoperative blood loss were independent risk factors for late-onset malignancy after AAA repair. Late-onset malignancy after AAA repair should be monitored among patients at high risk and requires aggressive management to improve long-term survival.
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