The ultrastructure, morphology and life cycle of a new chlorarachniophyte alga collected from Okinawa in Japan have been studied. The life cycle of this alga consists of amoeboid, wall-less round, coccoid and flagellated cells in culture condition; however, the coccoid and flagellate cells are very rare. The pyrenoid ultrastructure of this alga is the same as that of a previously described species, Lotharella globosa. Since pyrenoid ultrastructure has been adopted as the main criterion for the generic classification of the chlorarachniophytes, the present alga is placed in Lotharella. However, the present alga has a dominant amoeboid cell stage and a reduced walled-cell stage in the life cycle, while in L. globosa, the walled-cell stage is dominant and there is no amoeboid cell stage. Therefore the present alga is described as a new species of Lotharella: Lotharella amoeboformis Ishida et Y. Hara sp. nov.
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