Introduction: Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are at risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities. This study aimed to investigate the association between lung to thorax transverse area ratio (LTR) and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 3 years of age in fetuses with CDH. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of infants with prenatally diagnosed isolated left-sided CDH born in Kyushu University Hospital between 2008 and 2016. We examined the association between prenatal ultrasound findings including LTR and development quotient (DQ) at 36 to 42 months of chronological age. Results: We identified 34 live-born fetuses with isolated left-sided CDH, of which 30 survived and four died before discharge. The median LTR in the survivors was higher than in the non-survivors (p < 0.01). Among the survivors, 26 had available data on LTR (median 0.12, range 0.08–0.18) and overall DQ at 3 years of age (93, 61–112). Their median gestational age and birth weight were 37.6 (range 34.4–39.1) weeks and 2716 (2.256–3494) grams, respectively. There was no significant difference in overall DQ scores between the two groups divided according to the median LTR values (p = 0.62). LTR values were not associated with overall DQ scores after adjusting for gestational age (p = 0.39). In addition, no association was observed between LTR values and any subscale DQ scores. Conclusion: In fetuses with isolated left-sided CDH, prenatal LTR predicts the mortality but not neurodevelopmental outcomes at 3 years of age.
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