This article reviews treatment and management of common cardiovascular emergencies in critically ill patients, focusing on acute decompensated heart failure, cardiogenic shock, pulmonary embolism, and hypertensive crisis management with inotropes, vasopressors, diuretics, and antiarrhythmic drugs. Clinicians frequently come across challenging clinical scenarios, and there is a gap between evidence-based medicine and clinical practice. Inotropic and vasopressor agents are useful in the acute setting but must be weaned off or used as a bridge for mechanical circulation support devices. Clinicians should aim to lower complications by choosing medications with respect to comorbidities and close the gap between evidence-based medicine and clinical practice.
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