This systematic review aimed to update the management of sleep bruxism (SB) in adults, as diagnosed using polysomnography (PSG) and/or electromyography (EMG). Management methods covered were oral appliance therapy (OAT) with stabilization splints, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), biofeedback therapy (BFT), and pharmacological therapy. A comprehensive search was conducted on MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science up to October 1st, 2021. Reference list searches and hand searches were also performed by an external organization. Two reviewers for each therapy independently performed article selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. The reviewers resolved any disagreements concerning the assortment of the articles by discussion. Finally, 11, 3, 14, and 22 articles were selected for each therapy. The results suggested that OAT tended to reduce the number of SB events, although there was no significant difference compared to other types of splints, that the potential benefits of CBT were not well supported, and that BFT, rabeprazole, clonazepam, clonidine, and botulinum toxin type A injection showed significant reductions in specific SB parameters, although several side effects were reported. It can be concluded that more methodologically rigorous randomized large-sample long-term follow-up clinical trials are needed to clarify the efficacy and safety of management for SB.
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