Background: Artificial dural substitute made from an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) sheet has been widely used in surgical application. Case Description: We describe a 19-year-old woman in whom massive ossification with hematopoietic marrow was noted on both surfaces of an ePTFE sheet during epilepsy surgery. At age 8, she underwent decompressive craniectomy for a ruptured arteriovenous malformation in the right frontal lobe, followed by duraplasty with an ePTFE sheet and autologous cranioplasty fixed with titanium miniplates. Conclusions: Since the ossification was prominent in the wrinkle dents of the ePTFE sheet and fibrotic membrane with repetitive hemorrhagic events was noted under the ePTFE sheet, the most plausible mechanism of ossification development is the organization of epiartificial and subartificial dural hematoma. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of ossification development when working with ePTFE sheets for duraplasty.
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