There are growing interests in mechanical rupture-based antibacterial surfaces with nanostructures that have little toxicity to cells around the surfaces; however, current surfaces are fabricated via top-down nanotechnologies, which presents difficulties to apply for bio-surfaces with hierarchal three-dimensional structures. Herein, we developed ZnO/SiO2 nanowire structures by using bottom-up approaches and demonstrated to show mechanical rupture-based antibacterial activity and compatibility with human cells. When Escherichia coli were cultured on the surface for 24 h, over 99% of the bacteria were inactivated, while more than 80% of HeLa cells that were cultured on the surface for 24 h were still alive. This is the first demonstration of mechanical rupture-based bacterial rupture via the hydrothermally synthesized nanowire structures with antibacterial activity and cell compatibility.
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