This review focuses on mechanisms of calorie restriction (CR), particularly the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis as an evolutionary conserved signal that regulates aging and lifespan, underlying the effects of CR in mammals. Topics include (1) the relation of the GH-IGF-1 signal with chronic low-level inflammation as one of the possible causative factors of aging, that is, inflammaging, (2) the isoform specificity of the forkhead box protein O (FoxO) transcription factors in CR-mediated regulation of cancer and lifespan, (3) the role for FoxO1 in the tumor-inhibiting effect of CR, (4) pleiotropic roles for FoxO1 in the regulation of disorders, and (5) sirtuin (Sirt) as a molecule upstream of FoxO. From the evolutionary view, the necessity of neuropeptide Y (Npy) for the effects of CR and the pleiotropic roles for Npy in life stages are also emphasized. Genes for mediating the effects of CR and regulating aging are context-dependent, particularly depending on nutritional states.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes