Arteriosclerosis occurs preferentially at the inner curvature of blood vessels where shear stress induced by blood flow is low. Endothelial cells, which line the inner surface of blood vessels, transport all substances from vessels to tissues. It is well known that many functions of endothelial cells are affected by fluid shear stress, and it has been hypothesized that the dysfunction of endothelial transport is related to arteriogenesis. Endothelial transport is divided into two primary types: paracellular transport, which is passive, and transcellular transport, which is active. In this chapter, we introduce these endothelial transport processes and discuss the ways they are influenced by various shear stress conditions.
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