Aims/Introduction: To investigate the association between midlife or late-life diabetes and the development of sarcopenia in an older Japanese population. Materials and Methods: A total of 824 Japanese residents aged 65 to 84 years without sarcopenia were followed up from 2012 to 2017. Sarcopenia was determined following the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia definition. The time of diabetes diagnosis was classified as midlife or late-life diabetes by the age at first diagnosis of diabetes (< 65 or ≥ 65 years) based on annual health checkups data over the past 24 years. The duration of diabetes was categorized into three groups of < 10, 10–15, and > 15 years. The odds ratios of incident sarcopenia according to the diabetic status were estimated using a logistic regression analysis. Results: During follow-up, 47 subjects developed sarcopenia. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for incident sarcopenia was significantly greater in subjects with diabetes at baseline than in those without it (odds ratio 2.51, 95% confidence interval 1.26–5.00). Subjects with midlife diabetes had a significantly greater risk of incident sarcopenia, whereas no significant association between late-life diabetes and incident sarcopenia was observed. With a longer duration of diabetes, the risk of incident sarcopenia increased significantly (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusions: The present study suggests that midlife diabetes and a longer duration of diabetes are significant risk factors for incident sarcopenia in the older population. Preventing diabetes in midlife may reduce the risk of the development of sarcopenia in later life.
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