The modifying abilities of Khafji vacuum residue (KF-VR) and its up-graded pitches in the co-carbonization with low rank bituminous coals (Table 1) were examined in terms of swelling profile and anisotropic development in the resultant coke to find some ways for the mass utilization of vacuum residue. Some properties of coking additives are listed in Table 2 along with the up-grading procedures used. The sizes of anisotropic unit in singly carbonized cokes from the up-graded pitches were all larger than that from the original KF-VR (medium mosaic texture) as shown in Fig. 1, indicating the possibility for needle coke production. HTA-2, a hydrotreated KF-VR, exhibited, with high coke yield, superior carbonization properties, providing well-developed flow anisotropy of the needle coke.
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