Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a non-specific chronic inflammatory disease. The incidence of UC in China has been increasing in recent years. Mogrol is an aglycone of mogrosides. Studies have shown that mogrosides have anti-oxygenation, anti-inflammatory, and laxative effects as well as other biological activities. Purpose: To investigate the beneficial effects of mogrol on UC and identify its underlying mechanisms. Study design: We used the dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced UC model in mice, TNF-α-damaged NCM460 colonic epithelial cells, macrophage cells THP-M stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) / adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and compound C (an AMPK inhibitor) to confirm the key role of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) activation. Methods: Histological evaluation, immunohistochemical staining, Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence assay and quantitative real time-PCR were used in the study. Results: Oral administration of mogrol (5 mg/kg/daily) in vivo significantly attenuated pathological colonic damage, inhibited inflammatory infiltration and improved the abnormal expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in colonic mucosa via the AMPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In vitro, mogrol protected against intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction by activating AMPK in TNF-α-treated NCM460 cells and inhibited the production of inflammatory mediator in LPS-stimulated THP-M cells. Furthermore, mogrol's effects were reversed by compound C intervention in DSS-induced UC model. Conclusion: Mogrol exerts protective effects in experimental UC and inhibits production of inflammatory mediators through activation of AMPK-mediated signaling pathways.
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