Mitochondria and peroxisomes are ubiquitous subcellular organelles that are highly dynamic and possess a high degree of plasticity. These organelles proliferate through division of pre-existing organelles. Studies on yeast, mammalian cells, and unicellular algae have led to a surprising finding that mitochondria and peroxisomes share the components of their division machineries. At the heart of the mitochondrial and peroxisomal division machineries is a GTPase dynamin-like protein, Dnm1/Drp1, which forms a contractile ring around the neck of the dividing organelles. During division, Dnm1/Drp1 functions as a motor protein and constricts the membrane. This mechanochemical work is achieved by utilizing energy from GTP hydrolysis. Over the last two decades, studies have focused on the structure and assembly of Dnm1/Drp1 molecules around the neck. However, the regulation of GTP during the division of mitochondrion and peroxisome is not well understood. Here, we review the current understanding of Dnm1/Drp1-mediated divisions of mitochondria and peroxisomes, exploring the mechanisms of GTP regulation during the Dnm1/Drp1 function, and provide new perspectives on their potential contribution to mitochondrial and peroxisomal biogenesis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry