Cancer is a pathological condition in which the balance between cell growth and death is disordered. Various molecules have been reported to be involved in the oncogenic process of invasion, metastasis and resistance to treatment. An exponential growth in the collection of genomic and proteomic data in the past 20 years has provided major advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of human cancer, which has been applied to diagnostic and treatment strategies. Targeted therapies have been developed and adopted, particularly for advanced, refractory or recurrent cancers, depending on individual molecular profiles. The aim of the present review is to provide a report of the current literature regarding the molecular biology of gynecological cancers.
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