The underlying pathogenesis of stroke is mediated by a variety of environmental risk factors as well as genetic ones. Thus, we have to evaluate the environmental factors precisely to identify the stroke-related gene polymorphisms. The Hisayama study, an epidemiological study of cardiovascular diseases, was established in 1961 in Hisayama, Japan. In 2002, a screening survey for the genetic study was performed in Hisayama. The Fukuoka Stroke Registry (FSR) is a hospital-based registration of stroke patients. Stroke specialists from eight medical centers in southern Japan have participated in FSR. In the present study, control and case subjects were recruited from the Hisayama study and FSR, respectively. We performed a genome-wide case-control study and found that a nonsynonymous SNP in PRKCH encoding a member of protein kinase C (PKCη) was significantly associated with brain infarction. As a candidate gene analysis, we investigated the role of NAD (P) H oxidase C242T polymorphism in the development of brain infarction. The C242T polymorphism was not associated with lacunar and atherothrombotic infarction; however, the presence of T-allele may have a protective role in the occurrence of atrial fibrillation and cardioembolic brain infarction. These studies may provide important information for the development of the therapeutic strategies against stroke.
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