The molecular phylogeny of 24 Oecophylla smaragdina populations and two O. longinoda populations was studied using 647 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that O. smaragdina and O. longinoda were separated from each other first, and after that the first within-species divergence of O. smaragdina occurred in early stage of their history, in which the Asian, Australian, and Sulawesian groups rose. This grouping was almost coincident with the distribution of landmass in glacial periods in Pleistocene. Thereafter, each group seemed to have independently diverged into present populations on each landmass.
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