Phylogenetic relationships among tribes in the tachinid subfamily Exoristinae (Diptera, Tachinidae) are inferred from four genes, namely white, 18S, 28S and 16S rDNA. For phylogenetic inferences, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analyses were performed. The resultant, very similar, trees are nearly concordant with the traditional classification based on morphological characters. Our results suggest that the Tachinidae are monophyletic and sister to the Sarcophagidae. The tribal relationships within Exoristinae are supported in part with high reliabilities and are similar to those inferred by Stireman. Based on the resultant trees, the phylogenetic relationships and possible morphological synapomorphies were investigated. In addition, we evaluated the transformation of female reproductive habits in the Exoristinae, finding support for the hypothesis that ovolarviparity evolved independently from oviparity in several clades, and obtaining different results concerning the evolutionary history of micro-ovolarviparity depending on character optimization.
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