Water potential below a frozen soil layer was continuously monitored over an entire winter period (using thermally insulated tensiometers sheltered in a heated chamber) along with other soil, snow and atmospheric variables. In early winter, the freezing front advanced under a thin snow cover, inducing upward soil water flow in the underlying unfrozen soil. The freezing front started to retreat when the snow cover became thick enough to insulate the soil, resulting in the reversal of the flow direction in the unfrozen zone. These data provide a clear illustration of soil water dynamics, which have rarely been monitored with a tensiometer.
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