The peripheral nitrogen of N-confused porphyrins (NCP) can serve as a hydrogen bonding donor and acceptor, and a metal coordination site as well. NCP forms versatile dimers with the assistance of metal ions such as Pd II, PtII, ZnII, CdII, Hg II, MnII and FeII. The square-planar divalent metal complexes of C6F6-substituted NCP with Cu II, NiII and PdII act as efficient anion binding receptors. The doubly N-confused porphyrins (N2CP), possessing both N and NH at the periphery, form self-assembled 1-D hydrogen bonding networks, whose orientations differ in cis (zigzag) and trans (straight) isomers.
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