Graphene liquid cells provide the highest possible spatial resolution for liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy. Here, in graphene liquid cells (GLCs), we studied the nanoscale dynamics of bubbles induced by controllable damage in graphene. The extent of damage depended on the electron dose rate and the presence of bubbles in the cell. After graphene was damaged, air leaked from the bubbles into the water. We also observed the unexpected directional nucleation of new bubbles, which is beyond the explanation of conventional diffusion theory. We attributed this to the effect of nanoscale confinement. These findings provide new insights into complex fluid phenomena under nanoscale confinement.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- 化学 (全般)