Recent progress in the stem cell biology has led much insight into new therapeutic interventions aiming for the regeneration of the damaged central nervous system. The major strategies can be classified into two subgroups: (1) activation of endogenous neural stem cells, and (2) cell transplantation therapies. In either of these strategies, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms of maintenance, activation, and differentiation of neural stem cells and subsequent process, including the migration, survival, and functional maturation of differentiated cells. In this paper, we would like to summarize our recent findings on the therapeutic interventions of the injured spinal cord, especially focusing on the development of treatment for the acute phase of spinal cord injury with anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor blocking antibody.
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