Oscillatory neuronal (electrical) activity in defined frequency ranges supports synchronous interactions between anatomically distinct regions of the human brain during cognitive tasks. Here, the author reviews our previous studies that focused on the neuromagnetic oscillations in the sensory systems in response to the external stimuli in normal healthy subjects and neurological disorders. A magnetoencephalography was applied to evaluate the neuromagnetic oscillations in humans. We have demonstrated that the oscillatory gamma synchronization binds the primary and secondary somatosensory areas (S1 and S2) in humans. This functional coupling is modulated by aging. In people who stutter, functional and structural reorganization of the right auditory cortex appears to be a compensatory mechanism for impaired left auditory cortex function. This may be partly caused by increased right hemispheric local phase synchronization and increased inter-hemispheric phase synchronization. We have also found that the hippocampus modulates auditory processing differently under normal conditions and in epileptic patients with hippocampal sclerosis. This indicates that altered neural synchronization may provide useful information about possible functional deterioration in patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Finally, supraspinal (cortical) mechanism is responsible for pain perception and pain relief via neural oscillations. Together, neuronal synchronization plays an important role in distributed cortico-cortical processing.
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