Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based antineoplastic drug commonly used for treating colorectal, gastric, and pancreatic cancer. However, it frequently causes peripheral neuropathy as dose-limiting toxicity and is lacking a strategy for prevention. Alogliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, is an oral antidiabetic drug. Previous studies have shown that DPP-4 inhibitors have pleiotropic effects, including neuroprotection. In this study, we investigated the effects of alogliptin on oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy using in vitro and in vivo models. In PC12 cells, alogliptin attenuated neurite disorders induced by oxaliplatin and cisplatin. The repeated injection of oxaliplatin caused mechanical allodynia and axonal degeneration of the sciatic nerve in rats. These neuropathies were ameliorated by co-administration of alogliptin. Moreover, alogliptin did not attenuate tumor cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin in the cultured colon, gastric, or pancreatic cancer cell lines and tumor-bearing mice. These findings suggest that alogliptin may be beneficial for preventing oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy.