In this chapter we overview two topics on NMR methodologies for small molecules, mostly natural products; one is about the solution NMR-based methods used for stereochemical determination of natural products, and the other is on the solid-state and other techniques for investigating natural product-membrane interactions. Since important two methods for stereochemical analysis of natural products, namely the J-based configuration analysis (JBCA) and universal NMR database (UDB) methods, were reported in the 1990s, both methods have been widely used in the field of natural products. The newly coming RDC method is not the major method in the field of natural products yet, but will surely be an important tool for the stereochemical correlation between distant stereogenic centers, which could provide invaluable information as to the whole shape of natural products in solution. In the latter part of this chapter, we discuss the application of solid-state and other NMR techniques to membrane interaction analysis of natural products. In particular, we describe three examples of natural products that interact with biological membranes such as amphotericin B, erythromycin A, and theonellamide A. As shown in NMR studies of amphotericin B, natural products often reveal very high affinities for phospholipids and sterols in bilayer membranes. Solid-state NMR, therefore, provides a very promising approach toward the structure study of membrane-active complexes formed by natural products that have high affinity to lipids. In addition, solution NMR techniques can be applied to elucidate the structural features of membrane-bound small molecules such as antibiotic erythromycin A and membrane-disrupting cyclic peptide theonellamide A. Standard 2D 1H-1H experiments such as COSY (correlation spectroscopy), NOESY (nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy), and DOSY (diffusion-ordered spectroscopy) are often helpful in elucidating the membrane interaction between natural products and lipids.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Materials Science(all)