Recently, it was reported that Hh signaling is activated in tumor stromal cells but not in tumor cells themselves and that stromal cells may play a role in the proliferation of cancer cells. This suggests the possibility that stromal cells have an important role in the proliferation of tumor cells that may be mediated through Hh signaling. In this report, we present for the first time that inflammationstimulated monocytes produce Shh through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and that the Shh produced promotes the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells in a paracrine manner through Hh signaling.
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