Environmental exposure to toxic agents is commonly encountered by occupational and residential populations. However, in vivo exposure data in human subjects is limited by measurement and ethical restrictions. Monkey represents a suitable surrogate for human exposure studies, but the particle transport and deposition features in monkey airways are still not well understood. As a response to this research challenge, this paper presents a virtual exposure study that numerically investigated the nanoparticle transport process through a realistic cynomolgus monkey nasal airway. Particles with size of 1 nm to 1 μm were considered and the transport process was modelled by the Lagrangian discrete phase model. Overall and local deposition as well as particle dispersion along the airway were examined by using a variety of non-dimensional parameters including combined diffusion parameter, deposition enhancement factor and particle flux enhancement factor. Consistent deposition patterns were observed in present and literature nasal models. Most particles tended to pass the nasal airway through certain spatial regions, including the middle section of the nasal valve, the lower half of the middle coronal plane, and the central regions of the choana. While naturally inhaled nanoparticles can hardly be delivered to the olfactory region as it is located apart from the mainstream with high particle flux. Research findings provide insight into nanoparticle inhalation exposure characteristics in the monkey airway and can contribute in formulating data extrapolation schemes between monkey and human airways.
|ジャーナル||International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering|
|出版ステータス||出版済み - 2 2021|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes