For bulk doping, boron and phosphorus are usually used as p-type and n-type dopants, respectively. The distribution of these dopant concentrations in a silicon crystal along the vertical direction is governed by the segregation phenomena. As the segregation coefficient of phosphorus is small, phosphorus concentration distribution in a silicon crystal becomes inhomogeneous; inhomogeneous phosphorus concentration distribution affects the distribution of resistivity in the crystal. Therefore, it is important to control the phosphorus concentration distribution in a silicon crystal and make it uniform. In this study, by numerical analysis, we investigated the effect of the evaporation flux at the melt surface on phosphorus concentration distribution during the directional solidification process. To obtain a homogeneous phosphorus concentration distribution in the silicon crystal, we had to control the phosphorous evaporation flux at the melt surface and maintain approximately the same phosphorus concentration in the melt during the entire solidification process even though the growth rate was always changing.
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